Below is a database in development of links to associated Heritage bodies, industry resources and databases to assist in the better transmission of knowledge about Architecture, Urban and Cultural Heritage practices.
- National Trust of Australia (Victoria)
- Victorian National Trust Advocacy Blog
- Links to other state and territory trusts
- DOCOMOMO Australia
- Robin Boyd Foundation
- Melbourne Heritage Action
- Royal Historical Society of Victoria
- History Council of Victoria
- Citizens for Melbourne
- Koorie Heritage Trust
- Open House Melbourne comprising previous Heritage Addresses and Speaker Series content
- State Government
- National and International
Key Heritage Lists
- Victorian Heritage Database comprising various state, local and community heritage lists.
- Victorian National Trust Classification Register
- Australian Heritage Database comprising various lists
- Australian National Heritage List
- Australian World Heritage List
- UNESCO World Heritage List
- UNESCO World Heritage List - in danger
- World Monuments Fund Watch
- Professional Bodies
- International Literature Archives
University of Melbourne
- Cultural Commons
- Digitised Collections Home
- Cross-Section Journal
- Cross-Section Photography List
- Architecture Building and Planning Library Glass Slides Collection
- Architecture Building and Planning Faculty Handbooks
- Architecture Atelier Collection
- Smudges Journal
- University of Melbourne Architectural Drawings - Buildings on Parkville Campus
- University of Melbourne Library - Map Collections
- University of Melbourne Master Plan Reports
- University of Melbourne Archives - Architecture
- The Miles Lewis Heritage Building Materials Collection
ACAHUCH regularly holds events, symposia, lectures, panels and discussions that may be of interest to our audience. Most of these are recorded for reference and posted on our Youtube channel, hosted by the Melbourne School of Design - below are a snapshot of key recordings.
Please click here to view the channel.
The Burra Charter Turns 40
In 2019, the Burra Charter turned 40! As part of our acknowledgement of this significant landmark, Australia ICOMOS and ACAHUCH hosted panel discussions to celebrate and reflect on the document’s success and evolution, and to consider its capacity to respond to an evolving heritage landscape. The event involved hearty discussion between Professor Philip Goad and the panelists, Helen Lardner, Meg Goulding, Dr James Lesh and Emeritus Prof Miles Lewis.
A (short) History of the Japanese Room
Design Details of the Japanese Room
Showcasing collaborative presentations between ACAHUCH and electives at the Melbourne School of Design, including Critical and Curatorial Practices in Design, Architecture Design Studios, and the Masters of Urban and Cultural Heritage (MUCH) program.
ACAHUCH INTERNATIONAL | Jorge Otero-Pailos (UC)
Please join us for the last MSD Public Lecture for 2022 with Professor Jorge Otero-Pailos, Director of Historic Preservation, Columbia University. Dust, the kind the atmosphere deposits on buildings, is an important historical and environmental record that usually goes unrecognized.
The artworks in The Ethics of Dust series isolate dust and make it tangible by transferring it from the surface of buildings onto translucent casts. In this lecture, I will present a selection of dust casts taken from buildings around the world, and discuss the unexpected histories that each of them unveils. I will connect the dots between these punctual histories to outline a larger concept they all contribute to, namely that of atmospheric heritage.
ACAHUCH INTERNATIONAL | Eva Branscome (Bartlett, UCL) on Hans Hollein's 'Austrienalle'
ACAHUCH International | Eva Branscome (Bartlett, UCL) on Hans Hollein's 'Austrienalle' | 26.04.22
This lecture will discuss the curation of the 1968 Milan Triennale Austrian Pavillion by Austrian Architect and Artist, Hans Hollein. Looking at ‘The Great Number’ through Austrian glasses: Hans Hollein’s Exhibition at the 1968 Milan Triennale In 1968 the Austrian architect and artist, Hans Hollein, was asked to curate the Austrian Pavilion for the 14th Triennale in Milan.
The exhibition’s theme, ‘The Great Number’, was intended to address a growing disenchantment within modernity manifesting itself through global issues such as overpopulation, overproduction, mass waste, increased mobility, as well as social and psychological alienation: topics that had become increasingly urgent. Hollein’s response was to create an action-environment. Titled the ‘Austriennale’ it consisted of a Freudian and Kafkaesque experience of parallel corridors titled ‘supermarket’, ‘waste’, ‘snowstorm’, ‘overcrowding’, ‘frustration’, ‘population increase’, ‘dead-end’, and finally ‘isolation/individualisation’. Hollein’s idea was to address the problems arising in the post-war globalised world within a specifically local Austrian context.
The end of WWII had created a deep sense of cultural dislocation for Austria. Rediscovering the nation’s cultural and historical specificity beyond a Nazi agenda, or the commercial imperative of mass tourism, was crucial to artistic production for Hollein and others. Culturally Catholic, the influx of colonizing influences which arrived in Austrian via post-war American re-education initiatives created during the 1960s unexpected artistic mutations of pop, communication, commodification, Cold War science, and the spectre of the apocalypse, while some contributors were also seduced by the extreme escapist option of simply living in a bubble on the moon. These concepts were fused within a typically Austrian attitude which combined cynicism, sex, and the abandoning of limits by an avant-garde that, along with Hollein, was preoccupied with the human body.
Ironically, the Milan Triennale was closed down and occupied during the 1968 student uprisings as a manifestation of the global problems it was seeking to address. Additionally, and intended as a provocation culturally specific to the Austrian situation, the Vienna Aktionist Rudolf Schwarzkogler proposed his own alternative action-environment as a retort to Hollein's pavilion. The ‘Austriennale’ installation can thus be read as a fertile cauldron for art, architecture and exhibition design encapsulating the aspirations and fears of the European avant-garde against the backdrop of US hegemony and Cold War anxiety. Chaired by Professor Alan Pert (Deputy Dean of Melbourne School of Design).
Dr Eva Branscome has been working at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London since 2012. Originally trained as an interior architect, Eva studied for her PhD at the Bartlett. Her research and teaching work has two main strands: the first engages with the links between built heritage and cultural practices in contemporary Western cities, whether expressed through cultural institutions or counter-cultural and street art; the second is in the 19th- and 20th-century architectural history of Central Europe, focussing particularly upon Austria and other regions in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Eva’s work concentrates particularly on the intersections of architecture and media, such as exhibitions, publications, and photography, as well as museum architecture as a cultural and urban hinge. These topics intersect with her extensive experience in British architectural heritage having spent a decade as a caseworker for the Twentieth Century Society. Eva has published extensively – including Hans Hollein and Postmodernism (Routledge, 2019), the first major monograph on that architect-artist. She has co-curated exhibitions at the MAK Gallery in Vienna, ICA in London and Museum Abteiberg in Germany, and has previously taught architectural history at Queen Mary University, Oxford Brookes University and the University of Westminster.
ACAHUCH INTERNATIONAL | Pippo Ciorra (MAXXI) + Scott Woods (MSD) on Aldo Rossi : Exhibitions
Join Pippo Ciorra, Senior Curator at MAXXI, and Scott Woods , Academic Fellow at MSD and member of the Australian Centre of Architectural History Urban and Cultural Heritage, to discuss 'Aldo Rossi : Exhibitions' in the lead-up to MAXXI's December retrospective.
ACAHUCH + CCPD | Langlands & Bell and Prof Alan Pert
Langlands & Bell are two artists who work collaboratively. Ben Langlands (born London 1955) and Nikki Bell (born London 1959), began collaborating in 1978. Their artistic practice ranges from sculpture, film and video, to innovative digital media projects, art installations and full-scale architecture. Their work focuses on the complex web of relationships linking people with architecture and the built environment, and on a wider global level, the coded systems of mass-communications and exchange we use to negotiate an increasingly fast-changing technological world. The Turner Prize nominated British artists have never shied away from delving into risky subjects, especially those that reopen the old wounds of human history. For the artists, architectural structures bear witness to the political, cultural and economic events that have shaped our world. The very survival of these structures serves as moments of truth for times that have since come and gone.
Throughout their four-decade career Langlands & Bell have consistently revealed both the beauty and violence behind some of the world’s most historically challenging structures. This includes their Turner Prize-shortlisted interactive work The House of Osama bin Laden that was commissioned in 2002 by London’s Imperial War Museum to document and investigate postwar Afghanistan as part of the aftermath of September 11, 2001, and which saw the artists venture inside the former home of Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. In 2020, Langlands & Bell created work inspired by British architect Sir John Soane for their show Degrees of Truth (4 March 2020-3 January 2021) at Sir John Soane’s Museum in London exploring the complex web of relationships between people, architecture and today’s technological systems of communication. As the artists continually demonstrate, the historical monuments of our past act as reminders of periods of history that have had an immense and undeniable effect on the realities that shape our present world.
The largest artworks to date by Langlands & Bell are, the 2004 Paddington Basin Bridge, designed in association with Atelier One (structural engineers), an 8-metre high x 45-metre long white metal and glass pedestrian bridge linking Paddington station and the new Paddington Basin Development, London, with a capacity of up to 20,000 people per day; Moving World (Night & Day) (2007) — two 6 x 18-metre permanent outdoor sculptures of steel, glass, and digitally controlled neon at Heathrow Terminal 5; and China, Language of Places (2009), the 18-metre wall painting exhibited in English Lounge at Tang Contemporary Art, 798, Beijing in 2009. Their most recent exhibition, Ideas of Utopia, presented their work at Charleston, the modernist former home and studio of radical twentieth-century painters Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant. The show presented works of art which examine attempts – knowing and unknowing – to create utopias whether domestic, religious, social or commercial. The exhibition also considers Charleston as an important place of early modernist social experimentation and questions a building’s power to unite us, separate us, protect us, and inspire thought and creativity.
Critical and Curatorial Practices in Design is a research project led by Professor Pert, and is hosted by ACAHUCH at the Melbourne School of Design, the University of Melbourne.
ACAHUCH + CCPD | Dr Bettina Schlorhaufer and Prof Alan Pert
Join Professor Alan Pert (Director, Melbourne School of Design and Member of The Australian Centre of Architectural History, Urban and Cultural Heritage ) and Dr Bettina Schlorhaufer (Lecturer of Architectural Theory in the Arbeitsgruppe Achitekturtheorie at the Universität Innsbruck (UIBK), to showcase her research on Martin Wagner's competition "Das wachsende Haus" (The Growing House), with entries by Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius', other proponents proposing similar schemes like Adolf Loos and Margarethe Schütte-Lihotzky, and its relation to Ernest Fooks', his own entry to the competition "Kernhaus", and the influence these sorts of competitions had on the approach to residential architecture by graduates of the Bauhaus.
ACAHUCH + CCPD | Dr Albena Yaneva and Prof Alan Pert
Join Professor Alan Pert (Director, Melbourne School of Design and Member of The Australian Centre of Architectural History, Urban and Cultural Heritage ) and Dr Albena Yaneva (Professor of Architectural Theory, Director of the Manchester Architecture Research Group (MARG), Manchester Urban Institute, University of Manchester) to discuss her forthcoming book 'Crafting History' which explores the Architectural Archive.
ACAHUCH x MACGEORGE | Murray Fraser (Bartlett, UCL): A World of Architectural History
Public lecture: A World of Architectural History
This lecture will discuss the preparations and outcomes of the 21st Edition of Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture, in what are two entirely re-written volumes, also available online. It constitutes the most ambitious attempt to provide an overall account of architectural history in all parts of the world across the past 5,500 years. Three scholars from the University of Melbourne (Dr Amanda Achmadi, Prof Philip Goad, Prof Paul Walker) wrote chapters on Australian/Southeast Asian architectural history, and hence in part this public lecture will also be a celebration of their roles within the task.
Murray Fraser joined ACAHUCH for April of 2022, supported by the Macgeorge Bequest at the University of Melbourne.
Murray Fraser is Professor of Architecture and Global Culture at UCL’s Bartlett School of Architecture, and Chair of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain. In 2008 his book Architecture and the 'Special Relationship' won the RIBA Research Award and CICA Bruno Zevi Book Prize. He is General Editor for the 21st Edition of Sir Banister Fletcher’s Global History of Architecture (2020), awarded the SAHGB’s Colvin Prize. He received the 2018 RIBA Annie Spink Award for Excellence in Education.
ACAHUCH + AIA | Victorian Architecture Awards 2022 - 'Heritage'
Join Professor Philip Goad (Co-Director of The Australian Centre of Architectural History, Urban and Cultural Heritage and Melbourne School of Design Chair of Architecture), Peter Williams, Jury Chair for the 2022 AIA Heritage Architecture panel, David Wagner of Atelier Wagner, Peter Elliott, Founding Director of Peter Elliott Architecture and Design, Clare Cousins, Founding Director of Clare Cousins Architects, Tim Brooks, Associate at Fieldwork, Peter Malatt, Founding Director of Six Degrees, and Kate Gray, Principal and Director of Lovell Chen. Panellists will discuss their winning or nominated projects, the process the AIA takes in adjudicating these awards, and share their thoughts on current issues in heritage, conservation and renewal.
ACAHUCH + AIA | Winners of the Victorian Architecture Awards 2021 - 'Heritage'
Join Professor Philip Goad (Co-Director of The Australian Centre of Architectural History, Urban and Cultural Heritage and Melbourne School of Design Chair of Architecture), and jurors of the AIA Heritage Architecture panel Peter Malatt (Six Degrees), Louise Goodman (FJMT Studio) and Chris Jones (Decibel Architecture) in discussion with AIA 2021 award winners in the categories of Heritage — Kerstin Thompson of KTA, Patrick Kennedy of Kennedy Nolan, Brett Nixon of NTF Architects and Williams Boag Architects. Panellists discuss their winning projects, the process the AIA takes in adjudicating these awards, and share their thoughts on current issues in heritage, conservation and renewal.
ACAHUCH + AIA | Winners of the Victorian Architecture Awards 2020 - 'Heritage' and 'Advocacy'
ACAHUCH x Open House Melbourne | Reconnecting with the past through architectural objects
The Miles Lewis Heritage Building collection is a digital resource made available via the Architectural Building and Planning Library here. The website, currently under construction, will be available soon through the Australian Centre for Architectural History, Urban and Cultural Heritage homepage.
A team of architects have been involved in this project, they are
- Professor Miles Lewis AM FAHA , Collection creator
- Professor Hannah Lewi, ACAHUCH /MSD custodian of the digital repository
- Ben Waters (S-I Projects), 3d Scanning
- Meher Bahl (Restore Conservation Services ) Metadata and Digital Curator
- Naomi Mullumby, Architecture Building and Planning Librarian, University of Melbourne
Architecture typically uses 3D technologies to capture site and structure. The project to digitise the Miles Lewis Building Heritage collection created over 300 3D scans of historic building materials and objects. The collection tells a story of the evolution of the design, manufacturing and use of construction materials and techniques within Australian and offers insights into global influences on Australian architectural methods.
MUCH x PROV | A Cinematic Vision: The architecture of Howard Lawson
As part of Melbourne Design Week 2021, Public Record Office Victoria presents a talk by Virginia Blue (a recent MUCH graduate) on Melbourne architect Howard Lawson. Virginia’s extensive archival research, undertaken as part of her MUCH subjects including Representing and Remembering Place and MUCH Minor Thesis, has uncovered fascinating new information about the man who turned South Yarra into the Hollywood Hills with his iconic apartment complexes. The talk also highlights key architecture and planning concepts in the breadth of his work.
ACAHUCH x National Trust - Panel Discussion on Historic Preservation Theory
An online only panel discussion, this event will feature speakers from various institutional heritage programs discussing Jorge Otero-Pailos' recently published essential text 'Historic Preservation Theory'.
Jorge Otero-Pailos is an architect, artist, and theorist specializing in experimental forms of preservation, and Professor and director of Historic Preservation at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation,Founder and editor of the journal Future Anterior, author of Architecture’s Historical Turn (University of Minnesota Press) and co-editor of Experimental Preservation (Lars Muller Publishers).
Other speakers in the panel include Cristina Garduno-Freeman (UNSW), Cameron Logan (University of Sydney), Steven Cooke (Deakin University), James Lesh (Deakin University), Stuart King (University of Melbourne), Amy Clarke (University of the Sunshine Coast) and Hannah Lewi (University of Melbourne).
ACAHUCH x AQA x HV: Victoria’s Queer History
Heritage Victoria (HV) has commissioned the Australian Queer Archives (AQA - formerly Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives ALGA) to develop a new heritage study A History of LGBTIQ Victoria in 100 Places and Objects. It will include places of gathering, punishment, ‘treatment’, political activism, social life, recreation and health from as far back as records reveal to today. It will also include significant objects, documents, photos and collections to bring to light Victoria’s hidden queer histories. ACAHUCH academic Dr James Lesh discusses with Dr Marina Larsson (Heritage Victoria) and Dr Graham Willett (ALGA / UoM) the genesis, development and outcome of the report, and interesting findings contained within.
ACAHUCH x AURECON : Energy Efficiency and Heritage Building Resilience with Peter Cox (Carrig Intl)
Carrig International are at the forefront of research, policy and strategies for assessing the impact of our changing climate and on the energy retrofit of our existing building stock across Europe as a Climate Action. This seminar is a combination of a presentation to stimulate discussion and debate.
Topics of discussion will include:
- Climate Change & Heritage,
- Energy Efficiency in Traditional & Heritage Buildings,
- Energy Retrofit of Heritage Buildings Best Practice,
- Discussing Legislation & Regulation and;
- Sharing the Knowledge built up of the last 30 years in Europe and around the world.
Peter Cox (Presenter)
Peter has a primary degree in chemical engineering and a masters in material science and has worked in the analysis of decay of masonry, the treatment of stone and mortar in conservation of historic buildings, is the founding member of Carrig Conservation International Limited and has gained over thirty five years international experience of stone conservation in historic buildings and all types of porous building materials. Peter is an expert in Embodied and Embedded Carbon in existing buildings p since 2012 he has been President of the ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Energy, Sustainability & Climate Change. In 2019 Peter was elected a fellow of the RSA for services to conservation and sustainability.
Peter has been an active member of ICOMOS Ireland for many years and is both a past vice president and president of ICOMSO Ireland. Peter is Immediate Past President of the ICOMOS “International Scientific Committee on Energy & Sustainability” (ISCES) including Climate Change. Peter represented ICOMOS International on the CEN (Central European Standards Committee) Expert Technical Committee on producing a new European standard for “Energy Efficiency in Heritage Buildings”, this committee delivered its final report and it was published in late 2017. It is now EN 16883:2017Peter is a bureau member of the ICOMOS International Climate Change & Heritage Work Group and is a past member of the Work Group on the Sustainable Development Goals. Peter is also an active member of the Climate Heritage Network, a recently formed global organisation to highlight the threat of climate change. Peter is also a member of the bureau of ZNCC (Zero Net Carbon Collaborative).
Peter sits on a number of international committees, working in particular with Governments to improve legislation and policies on conservation in general and on energy efficiency in our heritage and traditional building stock. Peter is also an active member of the STBA (Sustainable Traditional Building Alliance) in Britain.Peter is also a guest and visiting lecturer to a number of universities in Ireland, United Kingdom, Europe and the United States. Peter has completed lecture tours of China, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, South America and North America lecturing on Material Conservation of 20 Century Buildings; the “Energy Efficiency of Heritage & Traditional Buildings” and on the effects of “Climate Change on our World Heritage Sites”.
Peter was most recently a member of the ICOMOS ISC 20 C work group that published the “Cadiz Document” a guide to the conservation of early 20th century concrete buildings.
AURECON are delighted to facilitate this lecture to the Australian Centre for Architectural History, Urban and Cultural Heritage by Peter Cox as another way of supporting the University of Melbourne to achieve its Climate Change goals.
ACAHUCH x DOCOMOMO Australia | Slide Night 2023
Following many successful interations over the years, ACAHUCH teamed with DOCOMOMO Australia again to hold our a slide night for 2023 showcasing recent explorations by students and members of DOCOMOMO. Speakers include:
- Tianchen Xu —Ian McKay: Beyond the Sydney School
- Philip Goad – Cambodian modern and Vann Molyvann
- Michele Summerton and David Wixted – Dispatches from Docomomo International Conference in Valencia, Spain. Hosted in the Japanese Room, at the Melbourne School of Design (University of Melbourne)
ACAHUCH Advisory Board - Career Trajectories
Graeme Davison, Urban and Social Historian and Adviser
Graeme is a former President of the Australian Historical Association, Chairman of the Heritage Council of Victoria, a Fellow of the Australian Academies of Social Sciences and Humanities, and a prominent adviser and commentator on museums, heritage and urban policy. Graeme is Emeritus Professor of History at Monash University, and author of The Rise and Fall of Marvellous Melbourne and Car Wars, and an editor of The Oxford Companion to Australian History.
Samantha Westbrooke, Conservation Architect National Trust
Samantha is a registered Architect with over 20 years of experience in the heritage industry. She has been engaged in all aspects of professional heritage architecture services and has worked in State and Local Government as well as private practice. Samantha established her own heritage architecture consultancy in Melbourne in 2010, which primarily undertakes heritage advisory work for local Government. Samantha also works for the National Trust of Australia (Victoria) as their conservation architect.
Susan Balderstone, Heritage Consultant
Susan has been a member of the ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites) International Scientific Committee for the Analysis and Restoration of Structures of Architectural Heritage since 1997. She was an ICOMOS Advisor on World Heritage to UNESCO (2008 – 2016). In 1996 she was appointed Adjunct Professor in Cultural Heritage at Deakin University Melbourne and was involved in setting up and teaching courses in Cultural Heritage in conjunction with her position at Heritage Victoria, where she was Assistant Director until 2005.
Bryce Raworth, Bryce Raworth Conservation & Heritage
Bryce is one of Melbourne’s most experienced heritage architecture practitioners and experts. He is Founder and Director of Bryce Raworth Conservation & Heritage is an award-winning practice with broad expertise in the planning, design and heritage fields. Having dealt with over 3500+ projects to date spanning almost 30 years, the practice has proven expertise in technical, legal and philosophical issues associated with the conservation and management of heritage places.
Peter Lovell, Lovell Chen
Peter’s enduring interest in the analysis and re-use of older buildings and sites began during his studies at Melbourne University, where he followed a Bachelor of Building degree with post-graduate research on the decay and preservation of materials. He founded Lovell Chen — originally as Allom Lovell & Associates — in 1981. The practice is now a leader in design, conservation and management associated with heritage places. Major early projects, such as the restoration of Melbourne’s mid-19th Century Windsor Hotel, were significant to Australia’s growing passion for rediscovery of its architectural heritage — a movement with which Peter is proud to be associated.
Sheridan Burke, Heritage Consultant
Sheridan’s career spans government, NGOs and the private sector, pursuing Twentieth Century heritage as her specialist field of interest. Most exciting current project is with the Getty Conservation Institute’s Keeping it Modern program delivering courses in conservation planning. Sheridan is an expert member of the Sydney Opera House Conservation Council; and its Design Advisory Panel as well as Local Planning Panels in NSW. Her voluntary contributions include serving on ICOMOS international committees for over 25 years. She has just completed a stint as Deputy Chair of the NSW Heritage Council and chair of the State Heritage Register Committee.
Careers Trajectories with the Advisory Board - Q&A
Following on from a discussion with ACAHUCH Advisory Board members around the direction of their careers, we opened up the presentation to questions from the audience, a collection of academics, students, and community members, hosted by Masters of Urban and Cultural Heritage coordinator, Dr Stuart King.
Fabrications 32.01 - Festschrift for Prof. Harriet Edquist
On Friday 25 June 2021, members of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (SAHANZ) met online to discuss papers being prepared for a special issue of Fabrications (Vol. 32. No. 1) ‘Looking inside design: crossing and connecting the disciplinary boundaries of architecture, design, and exhibition.’ Fabrications is the refereed journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (SAHANZ). Established in 1989, it is devoted to scholarly publication in the field of architectural history. It is published 3 times per year, and this issue will be published in January 2022.
- Session One
- Session Two
- AnnMarie Brennan
‘From the city to the spoon”: Anna Castelli Ferrieri, Pioneer of Postwar Italian Design
- Kirsty Volz
Architect and Ceramist: Nell McCredie’s Epping Pottery Studio
- Rebecca Hawcroft
Folk traditions: re-examining Hungarian émigré modernist designers
- Catriona Quinn
Re-evaluating post-war interior design practices: Noel Coulson and his clients, 1948-1965
- AnnMarie Brennan
- Session Four